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State in Public Administration System: State as a System

May 8, 2022 | ნახვა 113
State in Public Administration System: State as a System

                                                                                                        Sopo Chkopoia
                    Doctor of Social Sciences, Associate Professor, Eastern European University,  (Georgia)

                                                    State in Public Administration System: State as a System

 A system is a cooperation of interactive elements, and it executes such functions that can not be done individually. The system takes inputs in cases where it does not have any direct control and then transforms it. Nowadays, a system has strictly defined boundaries.
In today’s globalized world, the‘’ political system ‘’ term is used more frequently in politology, rather than the words state or nation, therefore they carry much more confined legal and institutional definitions.
The state is a union of public-political groups, which is sovereign over its’ members, it exercises its powers through the public authorities and occupies a strictly defined territory. It is formal apparatus of authoritative and legal norms, through which sovereignty is achieved, it ensures the maintenance of public order and protects the rights of each group and the whole state.
Besides, we should not mistake the state with the balance of forces, status-quo, or the government. The government may execute fundamental changes to the law or its role, but the state is invariable. Politics, civil order, specific law norms, and authoritative roles are changeable, through which the elite realizes its interests.
Keywords: political system; night-watchman state; political elite; pluralism; homogeneous; centralization.
The concept of ‘’political system’’ has been brought into politology at the end of the XX century, which was due to the changes in state governance. In society, the term political system was used to refer to political activity, which covered the whole field and had a dominant definition.
It is possible to categorize the system as dynamic and unforgettable. The results of a dynamic system are dependent on the current state of affairs, what kind of changes are being made in the current stage. The dynamic system is in its specific state at any given moment.  At any given time, the state of the system is defined as having a unique value.
At first, we have to distinguish the political system from the state itself. The political system consists of formal and non-formal structures, which express sovereignty over the state’s territory and people. This defines the state’s civil aspects. But any state can have many different political systems in its existence, such as China and France.
People can change the system with their involvement. In this case, the public legitimately, by law, can exercise control over the political elite by exercising its powers. The masses, according to interest groups, have the power to control the elite, just like it is the case in Switzerland or the United States. The role of religion is worth mentioning too, which is also a part of the political system.
The second characteristic distinguishes the degree of interference of the political system in the social life of society. Characteristic of the autonomy of this group is the exemption from elite orders and rules of law, which are characteristic of the activities of different groups.
At various stages of history, the question has been repeatedly raised about the extent to which the political system controls the church, education, the private sector, and so on. On one side are virtually ideal political systems that exercise regulatory-procedural control over society, leaving groups free from political interference, and on the other side are political systems that leave none of the groups without control. However, the issue of relations and ratios between the public and private sectors are still very important.
Within this, history for the so-called evolved western countries is divided into three chapters: the sovereign night watchman, same as the liberal sovereign; the state of universal welfare, and the sovereign Liberal state.
Let’s discuss each of them:
The state night watchman is the same type of liberal state where the functioning of the public sector is reduced to a minimum and is linked to the enforcement of a law that provides for private tutoring. Focuses on the resources needed to implement an effective foreign policy. In this case, the role of the state in the private sector is limited.
The term state night watchman is associated with the figure of the English thinker John Locke, who adopted liberal thought and liberal values. As Locke pointed out, the main function of the state is to protect the liberty, and citizen’s property. A similar ideology was founded in the United States by Thomas Jefferson, who conceived the concept of state overnight spending as follows: “Government is better if it rules the least”.
The state night watchman gives wide arena to the private sector, within its minimal involvement, but controls it with so called ‘’invisible hand’’.
The State of Universal Welfare – Otto Eduard Leopold von Bismarck was a Prussian statesman and XIX century diplomat who played an important role in the world politics. He became the first chancellor of the German Empire in 1871, and is considered to be the creator of the modern welfare state.
With the fast industrialization, there was a significant increase in population, and mass migration from the suburbs to the industrial centers began, which was due to the possibility of overcoming poverty. In difficult social conditions, the ideas of socialist propaganda became more attractive, and the number of socialists increased, the state could not suppress them, and Bismarck developed another tactic.
In 1878 after implementing actions against Kaizer, Bismarck introduced the law which prohibited socialistic newspapers and most of the trade unions, but in 1880 social-democrats party gathered in Switzerland, so they could make a plan against Bismarck. Bismarck knew well that he could not win against socialists, so he activated a law by which he could defeat them.
In 1881, Bismarck surprised the public by introducing a welfare reform bill into the Reichstag. System for German workers. The Bismarckian idea quickly gained popularity in Europe, with the same purpose of protecting workers and their families.
The state of universal welfare on the one hand meant providing bare minimum standards for every citizen, for example in the case of the state night watchman it provided donations only by the church, and on the other hand, it meant doing public donations/helping people with state resources for the well being of the citizens, which later turned into a mainc function of public administration.
From the early 1980’s there was first signs of disappointment towards the state of universal welfare, socialists censured walfare state as a new capitalist instrument of oppression. It was viewed as one side of the capitalist system whose goal was to escalate the conflict by appeasing and controlling the workers. This helped the socialists to destroy capitalism without a total war. Distrust and frustration with the welfare state were mainly caused by financial problems, with the average age increasing the overall value of social assistance, and the elderly part of the population was covered by the cost of services for the elderly. , Which was growing, leading to a reduction in the proposed social package. All of this has led to a re-emergence of the idea of ​​a universal welfare state, and states have been forced to return to the old system of aid, such as church donations.
Despite all of these, the state of universal welfare subordinated the corrections and its signs are still found in some European countrries, where they maintain competitiveness and political legitimacy.
The regulatory state is based on the concept of a new public administration, that has been in power in the West since the neo-conservatives came to power.
This type of state is based on the expansion of state borders, which is achieved at the expense of reducing the rights of the private sector. Although the efficiency of the functioning of the public sector is increasing, this model is characterized by several shortcomings, which are primarily related to the problem of democratic legitimacy.
Hadley Bull in his paper ,,The Anarchical Society” distinguishes the concepts between “state system” and “international community”. The place of states in the international order is determined by the capabilities and above all, the power of the state with the “international community”. These norms take different forms depending on the scale, basis, and degree of generalization.
The functions of the state can be considered as its main directions, which are manifested in the social essence and social order. The function of the state differs from its’ goals and objectives. The functions of the state are variable and derive from its forms (for example democracy and totalitarianism), it is divided into internal and external functions.
The role of society in public administration
The development of each state is based on the modernization and industrialization of society. In most modern democracies, the state participates in and controls the country’s economy, ensuring universal welfare, health care, education, and etc.
From the old time, people have formed connections based on common interests. The state is a legitimate union, united by a “collective goal”, to care for the society, to ensure social welfare.
Before World War I, politics was considered only an elite affair, so inter-state relations were closed, attitudes changed after World War I, and inter-state relations became visible to the general public.
Engels believed that minorities were the basis of state domination, as it was the only way to regain power in society. There was no class system in primitive society, since all the people have the same interests.
Pluralists considered the state as a permanent concept, in which there was a fixed force that was distributed in society.
De Tocqueville considered that every section of society should have great and equal interests in the state, because he believed that would make the state self-centered if one class could dominate the others.
The role of the state is defined by its society, solving important cases,indentity and culture, no matter it’s own geographical location.
The state combines idealistic, functionalist, and organizational perspectives. The state is characterized by 3 goals: to expand connections (to create a global network), to help human evolution process, and to address global, social issues.
State rules over mutual ideologies in the modern society, however there is a big difference between a state and a government.
Martin Wolf confirms in his works that the main function and purpose of the state is security, and to protect the sovereignty. Liberalists think that the role of state is very narrow and it needs to be studied more. The role of state in politics it to take part in state management.
Judging by the degree of freedom, states are as vulnerable as individuals. A free state is not protected and is in constant danger, even organizations achieve self-defense at the expense of reducing freedom.
Within the state, the government exercises legitimate power, acts in the name of law and order, and establishes order. At the international level, the power of the state is voiced to defend itself and gain superiority over others.
National politics is the realm of government, administration, and law, while international politics is the realm of force and mutual understanding.
The International field is part of politics. National politics is multifaceted, it can be described as vertical, hierarchical, heterogeneous, centralized, governed, and tangled, while international politics is characterized by anarchy – it does not necessarily mean chaos and absence, the absence of a higher authority, unruled and mutually adaptable too.
If the order is centralized it means that the possibility of resolving the issue at high-level increases. According to Thomas Hobbes, “the state is free from moral and legal restrictions in its relations with other states on the way to achieving its goals”. The ideas of morality and law, according to Hobbes, are useful only and exclusively in society, although international life goes beyond the framework of society.
According to the universal traditions (Kant), The essence of international politics lies in transnational public relations. People are united by common interests.
In the XVII-XVIII centuries the idea of ​​the international community was defensive in nature. Since the XX century, the meaning of this term has expanded, extending beyond the framework of Europe and encompassing the global world.Watell’s views that nations and states belong to the international community have been replaced by inaccurate positions.
At the current stage, the question of the international community, its authenticity, has been repeatedly questioned. The international system consists of elements of society and in this system:
Countries always fight for power and being influential.
It is impossible to avoid conflict in this type of society(American scientist Rapoport believed that conflict is a necessary condition for the development of society, he linked to conflict with competition);
Countries cooperate in the common interest (for this purpose, they have long formed alliances).
Civil society is an important part of a democratic state. Modern democracies ensure that citizens are active in policy-making and create the right conditions for raising citizens’ political awareness. In any democratic environment, citizens influence the decision-making process.
Alexis de Tocqueville focused on active civil welfare and noted that society’s activism in the United States is high at all levels in decision-making, unlike in Europe.
The ideas of civil society are connected to the name of John Locke, where society creates order and ensures the legitimacy of the state. Civil society plays a suitable role in the state, active citizenship and political participation has a significant impact on the decision-making process in public administration as well, the active involvement of civil society gradually increases its level of success. The traditional model of governance is based on an arrangement where the ultimate power is in the hands of the state and governance is centralized, distinct features of this system are centralization and a high rate of bureaucracy. The bureaucratic system is closely related to elitism. Therefore, the creation and execution of public policy are correlated to the work of the ruling elite.
Open and Closed Society
In modern world the terms open and closed type of society are actively used. The idea of ​​an open society is used rather attractively, as opposed to a closed one. In an open society, some inequality can also occur, but individuals have the opportunity to move to a higher social class, or the opposite. (But it must be said that according to some scientists and researchers, an open society is an ideal type that can only exist in theory.)
Open society has flaws and responsibilities too, for example, some individuals struggle for high social status, but they may not have the appropriate skills to achieve it, so they experience disappointment. Those who have the ability to handle competition, push other values ​​into the background, for example, reduce time spent with family, or reject other principles and values, and after achieving the goal may experience lower access, so change interests and behaviors after moving to a higher social class.
In a closed society, a person is given social status at birth and is not given the opportunity to change, to have a status. A person is born into a particular situation and remains in it for the rest of his life, marriage between sides is prohibited ( The caste system of India, which was officially abolished by the Government of India in 1949 and operated for 2500 years).
Nowadays, the concept of an open society is highly controversial – both intellectually and in practice. Open society has been displayed as the ideal type to be achieved in practice, including in countries such as the United States and Western Europe. The alarming indicator of the decline of political rights and civil liberties (2005-2018) was actively considered as a significant problem at the global level (Fredom House 2019).
The concept of open society was formulated by Karl Popper in his work ”Open Society and Its Enemies.” Popper has been actively talking about the rise of signs of totalitarianism in the twentieth century, in this type of society the laws, institutions and scientific principles remain beyond criticism because they are given by God and are based on natural order and universal truth. The idea of ​​an open society is literally a continuation of the tradition of liberal philosophy and emphasizes the freedom and personal emancipation of the individual.
Open society identifies individuality, popular sovereignty, civil liberties, equal opportunities, and etc.
In distinction, the term closed society is used which is based on illiberal visions where individual citizens are not appreciated.
An open society is described by cultural openness, religious tolerance and pluralism. From the socio-economic point of view, open society is characterized by dynamism and inequality, high quality of social mobility, high quality of geographical mobility, individual Possibility of legal development, low barriers to political participation, high tolerance, ability to assimilate and open up to technological and cultural innovations.
A closed type society often becomes a victim of traditions, this type of society tries not to go beyond the barriers established by their ancestors in the past.
Technological development since the XIX century was associated with industrial progress and innovation, which has contributed to economic assets and better working circumstances.
Liberal democracy is a universal concept that strives to disassemble the barriers that exist at the present stage between different groups in society.
The main disadvantage of an open society is still its views, according to which the other side is always wrong, but itself is always right. According to Popper, a democratic state in itself shows its openness, which is why democracy is believed to be the best form of state organization since democracy, like an open society, is a means of defending freedom.
Popper considered open society as the best form of public life and did not fully associate it with utopia. Only in an open society can it be addressed without violence. Bureaucracy can become a serious problem in an open society if there are no groups in society that prevent the spread of bureaucracy. Bureaucracy and bureaucratic thinking are considered to be the main opponents of an open society and democracy.
The political system is a balance between contending interests, willpower, abilities.  A particular political system is distributed of rights and responsibilities through the balance of power. Some scholars believe that those who play these roles are the political elite, who have the right to command others.
The characteristics of open and closed type are widely used to distinguish between political systems, both in terms of liberal democracy and dictatorship, autocracy or totalitarian system,but this is a political system. Its distinguishing patterns are not a contradiction.
The influence of civil society on the democratization process of the country and good governance is unavoidable. Civil society is an essential part of the political system. A democratic political system guarantees that the appropriate environment is better represented for the ideas and interests of its citizens. A non-democratic environment and the lack of democratic principles lead to a decrease in the role of civil society in public administration.

Source Material:
[1].M. Amirgulashvili Public Political Process and Analysis, Publishing Universal, Tbilisi, 2008.
[2].Senarkleni P.D. Anipheni, I., ‘’International Politics’ Modern Theories and Tasks’’ Ilia State University.,Tb,.2014.
[3].Theory of International Relations. Chrestomathy. Tb., 2004
[4].Mark Bovens & Marcus Düwell eds. „The Open Society and Its Future“., Think Paper Series #1., Institutions for Open Societies, Utrecht University., 2020
[5].Gurgenidze B., ‘’Public -Political Administation Theory and practice’’ Publishing Kalmosani, Tb,2014.
[6].”Open Government on the Approval of the Action Plan of Georgia for 2018-2019″, Resolution of the Government of Georgia., 13/11/2018.
[7].”EU-supported project -” Participatory local budgeting in the city of Rustavi “has been completed”, Georgian National Association of Local Self-Government., 2018
[8].”Religion, Society and Politics in Georgia”, Caucasus Institute for Peace, Democracy and Development, Tbilisi, 2016.

                                                                                                         Софо Чкофоия
Доктор социальных наук, ассоциированный профессор, Восточно-Европейский университет (Грузия)

                                  Государство в системе публичного управления: государство как система

Система представляет собой совокупность взаимодействующих элементов и выполняет функцию, которую невозможно выполнить по отдельности. Политическая система отличается от самого государства тем что, она состоит из формальных и неформальных структур, выражающих суверенитет государства над территорией и народом.
Развитие каждого государства основано на модернизации и индустриализации общества. Современное демократичесское государство в основном участвует в экономике страны и контролирует ее, обеспечивая всеобщее благосостояние, здравоохранение, образование и т.д. А что касается самой международной сферы, то оно принадлежит политике.
Технологическое развитие с 19 века было связано с промышленным прогрессом и инновациями, которые способствовали экономическому процветанию и улучшению условий труда.
Либеральная демократия является универсальной концепцией, стремящейся демонтировать барьеры, существующие на современном этапе между различными группами в обществе. Общество закрытого типа часто является жертвой традиций, такой тип общества старается не выходить за давно установленные предками барьеры.  Главным недостатком открытого общества по-прежнему остаются его взгляды, согласно которым противоположная сторона всегда неправаю
Политическая система представляет собой некое равновесие между конкурирующими интересами, их силой воли, возможностями, и некое равновесие между личностями. Особая политическая система – это перераспределение прав и обязанностей через баланс сил.
Открытая и закрытая характеристики широко используются для отличия политических систем друг от друга, как с точки зрения либеральной демократии, с одной стороны, так и с точки зрения диктатуры, автократии или тоталитарной системы, с другой, в качестве отличительных признаков политической системы.